The term animal testing refers to procedures performed on living animals for purposes of research into basic biology and diseases, assessing the effectiveness of new medicinal products, and testing the human health and/or environmental safety of consumer and industry products such as cosmetics, household cleaners, food additives. Animal research has long been controversial the medical benefits can be significant, although not always, and opponents argue the benefits are often outweighed by the pain and suffering inflicted. Research shows that 90 percent of primates in laboratories exhibit abnormal behaviors that are caused by the physical abuse, psychological stress, social isolation, and barren confinement that they are forced to endure.
Research with nonhuman animals occupies a central and essential role in psychology and related fields both old and new discoveries from animal research continue to play key roles in advancing our understanding of human behavior. Animal testing (also referred to as animal research) refers to the use of non-human animals in experiments it is estimated that 50 million–100 million animals worldwide    are used annually and subsequently killed in scientific procedures, mostly inside universities, medical schools, pharmaceutical companies, and commercial. Why animals are used animals are used in research when there is a need to find out what happens in the whole, living body, which is far more complex than the sum of its parts it is difficult, and in most cases simply not yet possible, to replace the use of living animals in research with alternative methods. Psychological research aims to understand human behavior and how the mind works this involves studying non-human animals for research through observation as well as experiments some of the experimental procedures involve electric shocks, drug injections, food deprivation, maternal separation, and.
Opponents of animal testing say that it is cruel and inhumane to experiment on animals, that alternative methods available to researchers can replace animal testing, and that animals are so different from human beings that research on animals often yields irrelevant results. Animals used in psychological research vary about 7-8% of psychological research involves the use of animals although the range of species that have been used in various studies in psychology is broad, 90% of the animals used have been rodents and birds, principally rats, mice/ and pigeons only about 5% of the. According due respect to animal interests does not require the termination of all animal research, however such research ranges from field studies of wild populations, through non-invasive behavioural or psychological studies of sanctuary or laboratory populations, to mildly harmful invasive experimentation, more harmful experimentation, and. Animal testing has played a central role in many areas of psychological research by allowing researchers to discover principles that have helped to solve human problems.
Animals used in research despite growing recognition of the inadequacies of animal models and growing acceptance of alternative methods, animals continue to be used in research, testing and teaching in the united states every year. List of cons of animal experimentation 1 it uses cruel and inhumane treatment generally, testing protocols are often painful to the animal test subjects, where they are deprived of food and water, force-fed, physically restrained in long periods, inflicted with pain and wounds to test for healing process effects and remedies, and even purposely killed as part of the process. Assessing animal research despite the lack of systematic evidence for its effectiveness, basic animal research in the united kingdom receives much more funding than clinical research 1,4,5 given this, and because the public accepts animal research only on the assumption that it benefits humans, 6 the clinical relevance of animal experiments needs urgent clarification.
The use of animals in research and testing is strictly controlled, particularly regarding potential pain federal laws, the animal welfare act and the public health service act, regulate the alleviation and elimination of pain, as well as such aspects of animal care as caging, feeding, exercise of dogs and the psychological well-being of primates. The use of animals in biomedical research has a lengthy history early greek writings (circa 500 bc), for example, describe the dissection of living animals by physician-scientists interested in physiological processes. Pew research center poll have found that 50 percent of us adults oppose the use of animals in scientific research, and other surveys suggest that the shrinking group that does accept animal experimentation does so only because it believes it to be necessary for medical progress(5,6) the reality is that the majority of animal experiments do.
The process of replacing animals in research, testing, and education is supported by studies showing that routine laboratory procedures and typical laboratory environments are more stressful for animals than is commonly appreciated. Most animals used in testing and research are not protected by the animal welfare act (awa) as of 2010, only over 1 million animals are covered by the awa, leaving around 25 million more unprotected from mistreatment and abuse.
This overview provides a brief summary of the ethical and scientific considerations regarding the use of animals in research and testing, and accompanies a collection entitled animals, research, and alternatives: measuring progress 50 years later, which aims to spur ethical and scientific advancement. 1 am psychol 1985 oct40(10):1104-11 alternatives to the use of animals in psychological research gallup gg jr, suarez sd pmid: 3907439. Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, animal research and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in experiments that seek to control the variables that affect the behavior or biological system under study this approach can be contrasted with field studies in which animals are observed in their natural environments.